JointUSRUniversal  spherical  revolute joint aggregation (no constraints, no potential states) 
This information is part of the Modelica Standard Library maintained by the Modelica Association.
This component consists of a universal joint at frame_a, a revolute joint at frame_b and a spherical joint which is connected via rod1 to the universal and via rod2 to the revolute joint, see the default animation in the following figure (the axes vectors are not part of the default animation):
This joint aggregation has no mass and no inertia and introduces neither constraints nor potential state variables. It should be used in kinematic loops whenever possible since the nonlinear system of equations introduced by this joint aggregation is solved analytically (i.e., a solution is always computed, if a unique solution exists).
The universal joint is defined in the following way:
The definition of axis 2 of the universal joint is performed according to the most often occurring case. In a future release, axis 2 might be explicitly definable via a parameter. However, the treatment is much more complicated and the number of operations is considerably higher, if axis 2 is not orthogonal to axis 1 and to the connecting rod.
Note, there is a singularity when axis 1 and the connecting rod are parallel to each other. Therefore, if possible n1_a should be selected in such a way that it is perpendicular to rRod1_ia in the initial configuration (i.e., the distance to the singularity is as large as possible).
The rest of this joint aggregation is defined by the following parameters:
An additional frame_ia is present. It is fixed in the rod connecting the universal and the spherical joint at the origin of frame_a. The placement of frame_ia on the rod is implicitly defined by the universal joint (frame_a and frame_ia coincide when the angles of the two revolute joints of the universal joint are zero) and by parameter vector rRod1_ia, the position vector from the origin of frame_a to the spherical joint, resolved in frame_ia.
An additional frame_ib is present. It is fixed in the rod connecting the revolute and the spherical joint at the side of the revolute joint that is connected to this rod (= rod2.frame_a = revolute.frame_a).
An additional frame_im is present. It is fixed in the rod connecting the revolute and the spherical joint at the side of the spherical joint that is connected to this rod (= rod2.frame_b). It is always parallel to frame_ib.
The easiest way to define the parameters of this joint is by moving the MultiBody system in a reference configuration where all frames of all components are parallel to each other (alternatively, at least frame_a and frame_ia of the JointUSR joint should be parallel to each other when defining an instance of this component).
In the public interface of the JointUSR joint, the following (final) parameters are provided:
parameter Real rod1Length(unit="m") "Length of rod 1"; parameter Real eRod1_ia[3] "Unit vector along rod 1, resolved in frame_ia"; parameter Real e2_ia [3] "Unit vector along axis 2, resolved in frame_ia";
This allows a more convenient definition of data which is related to rod 1. For example, if a box shall be connected at frame_ia directing from the origin of frame_a to the middle of rod 1, this might be defined as:
Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Joints.Assemblies.JointUSP jointUSR(rRod1_ia={1.2, 1, 0.2}); Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Visualizers.FixedShape shape(shapeType = "box", lengthDirection = jointUSR.eRod1_ia, widthDirection = jointUSR.e2_ia, length = jointUSR.rod1Length/2, width = jointUSR.rod1Length/10); equation connect(jointUSP.frame_ia, shape.frame_a);
animation 
Value: true Type: Boolean Description: = true, if animation shall be enabled 

showUniversalAxes 
Value: true Type: Boolean Description: = true, if universal joint shall be visualized with two cylinders, otherwise with a sphere (provided animation=true) 
n1_a 
Value: {0, 0, 1} Type: Axis Description: Axis 1 of universal joint fixed and resolved in frame_a (axis 2 is orthogonal to axis 1 and to rod 1) 
n_b 
Value: {0, 0, 1} Type: Axis Description: Axis of revolute joint fixed and resolved in frame_b 
rRod1_ia 
Value: {1, 0, 0} Type: Position[3] (m) Description: Vector from origin of frame_a to spherical joint, resolved in frame_ia 
rRod2_ib 
Value: {1, 0, 0} Type: Position[3] (m) Description: Vector from origin of frame_ib to spherical joint, resolved in frame_ib 
phi_offset 
Value: 0 Type: Angle_deg (°) Description: Relative angle offset of revolute joint (angle = phi(t) + from_deg(phi_offset)) 
phi_guess 
Value: 0 Type: Angle_deg (°) Description: Select the configuration such that at initial time phi(t0)  from_deg(phi_guess) is minimal 
sphereDiameter 
Value: world.defaultJointLength Type: Diameter (m) Description: Diameter of the spheres representing the universal and the spherical joint 
rod1Diameter 
Value: sphereDiameter / Types.Defaults.JointRodDiameterFraction Type: Diameter (m) Description: Diameter of rod 1 connecting the universal and the spherical joint 
rod2Diameter 
Value: rod1Diameter Type: Diameter (m) Description: Diameter of rod 2 connecting the revolute and the spherical joint 
revoluteDiameter 
Value: world.defaultJointWidth Type: Diameter (m) Description: Diameter of cylinder representing the revolute joint 
revoluteLength 
Value: world.defaultJointLength Type: Distance (m) Description: Length of cylinder representing the revolute joint 
cylinderLength 
Value: world.defaultJointLength Type: Distance (m) Description: Length of cylinders representing the two universal joint axes 
cylinderDiameter 
Value: world.defaultJointWidth Type: Distance (m) Description: Diameter of cylinders representing the two universal joint axes 
checkTotalPower 
Value: false Type: Boolean Description: = true, if total power flowing into this component shall be determined (must be zero) 
eRod1_ia 
Value: rod1.eRod_ia Type: Real[3] Description: Unit vector from origin of frame_a to origin of spherical joint, resolved in frame_ia 
e2_ia 
Value: rod1.e2_ia Type: Real[3] Description: Unit vector in direction of axis 2 of universal joint, resolved in frame_ia 
rod1Length 
Value: rod1.rodLength Type: Distance (m) Description: Length of rod 1 (= distance between universal and spherical joint) 
sphereColor 
Default Value: Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Types.Defaults.JointColor Type: Color Description: Color of the spheres representing the universal and the spherical joint 

rod1Color 
Default Value: Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Types.Defaults.RodColor Type: Color Description: Color of rod 1 connecting the universal and the spherical joint 
rod2Color 
Default Value: rod1Color Type: Color Description: Color of rod 2 connecting the revolute and the spherical joint 
revoluteColor 
Default Value: Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Types.Defaults.JointColor Type: Color Description: Color of cylinder representing the revolute joint 
specularCoefficient 
Default Value: world.defaultSpecularCoefficient Type: SpecularCoefficient Description: Reflection of ambient light (= 0: light is completely absorbed) 
cylinderColor 
Default Value: Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Types.Defaults.JointColor Type: Color Description: Color of cylinders representing the two universal joint axes 
frame_a 
Type: Frame_a Description: Coordinate system fixed to the component with one cutforce and cuttorque 


frame_b 
Type: Frame_b Description: Coordinate system fixed to the component with one cutforce and cuttorque 

frame_ia 
Type: Frame_a Description: Coordinate system at origin of frame_a fixed at connecting rod of universal and spherical joint 

frame_ib 
Type: Frame_b Description: Coordinate system at origin of frame_b fixed at connecting rod of spherical and revolute joint 

frame_im 
Type: Frame_b Description: Coordinate system at origin of spherical joint fixed at connecting rod of spherical and revolute joint 

axis 
Type: Flange_a Description: 1dim. rotational flange that drives the revolute joint 

bearing 
Type: Flange_b Description: 1dim. rotational flange of the drive bearing of the revolute joint 
world 
Type: World 


revolute  
rod1 
Type: UniversalSpherical 

rod2 
Type: FixedTranslation 

relativePosition 
Type: RelativePosition 

position_b 
Type: Constant[3] 
Modelica.Mechanics.MultiBody.Joints.Assemblies Planar revolute  revolute  revolute joint aggregation (no constraints, no potential states) 